Bibliograpghy/List of Refrences

List of References



Devereux, E. Dilane, A. Power, M (2011) Morrisset Fandom, Representations and Identities. Bristol: Intellect

Gorman, P. (2006) The Look: Adventures in Rock and Pop Fashion. London: Adelita

Bate, D. (2009) Photography The Key Concepts. Oxford: Berg Publishers

 Thornton, S. (1995) Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital. Cambridge: Polity

Hodkinson, P. (2001) Goth: identity, style and subculture. Oxford: Berg Publishers

BBC History (10 April 2013) What is Thatcherism? [online] available from <; [5th February 2015]

Open College of Arts (2002) Martin Parr Photographic Works 1971-2000. [online] available from <; [5th February 2015]

Cowley, C. Elliott, J. Knight, A. (1977) Oxford Compact Dictionary and Thesaurus.Oxford: Oxford University Press

Simonelli, D. (2012) Working Class Heroes Rock Music and British Society In The 1960s and 1970s. Hoboken: Lexington Books

The Guardian (2014) Don’t Despise Celebrity Culture – The Impulse To Admire Can Be Precious [online] available from <’t-despise-celebrity-culture-angelina-jolie&gt; [18th December 2014]

Amusing Planet (2011) The Disciples: Fans of Rock Concerts by James Mollison [online] available from <>%5B18th December 2014]

Miller, J (2011) Fashion and Music. Oxford: Berg Publishers

Amazon (2015) The Disciples [online] available from <>%5B

26th January 2015]


Kent Online (2015) Blue Plaque Honoring Rolling Stones Unveiled At

Dartford Railway Station [online] available from < February 2015]

Letters of Notes (2013) He Is Called Mick Jagger [online] available from < [17th February 2015]

Youtube (2015) Bitter Sweet Symphony by The Verve [online] available from < February 2015]

Chafla, E. Easley, E (2006) Rock Tease. The Golden Years Of Rock T-Shirts. New York: Abrams Image

Magnum Photos (2015) Martin Parr Manchester. Osmonds Fan. 1973 [online]

available from <; [17 February 2015]

Mollison, J [n.d.]The Disciples [online] available from < [18th December 2014]

Harries, P [n.d.]Marilyn Manson[online] available from < February 2015]

Youtube (2015)Dad Makes Fun of His Son For Looking Like Marilyn Manson by Alan Jr [online] available from <>%5B17th February 2015]



McIntyre, P (2011) Creativity and Cultural Production: Issues For Media Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Howarth, S (2005) Singular Images: Essays on Remarkable Photographs. London: Tate Publishings

Robins, K (1996) Into The Image: Culture and Politics in the Field of Vision. London: Routledge

Durden, M (2013) Fifty Key Writers on Photography. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis

Cowen, T (1998) In Praise of Commercial Culture. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London: Harvard University Press

Frith, S (1990) Facing The Music: Essays on Pop, Rock and Culture. London: Mandarin

Bull, S (2010) Photography. London; New York: Routledge

Thornton, S. (1995) Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital. Cambridge: Polity

Pih, D. (2013) Glam!: The Performance of Style. London: Tate

Bayley, A (2009) Recorded Music: Performance, Culture and Technology. New York: Cambridge University Press

Thorne, T (1993) Fads, Fashion and Cults: From Acid House to Zoot Suit-via Existentialism and Political Correctness – The Definitive Guide To (Post-) Modern Culture. London: Bloomsbury

Gracyk, T (2001) I Wanna Be Me: Rock Music and the Politics of Identity. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press

Reynolds, S (1995) The Sex Revolts: Gender, Rebellion and Rock ‘n’ Roll. London: Serpent Tail

Frosh, P (2003) The Image Factory: Consumer Culture, Photography and the Visual Content Industry. Oxford: Berg

Edensor, T (2002) National Identity, Popular Culture and Everyday Life. Oxford: Berg

Herman, R. West Marvin, E (2002) Concert Music, Rock, and Jazz Since 1945: Essays and Analytical Studies. Rochester, New York: University of Rochester Press

Pattie, D (2007) Rock Music and Performance. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian

Norris, C (1989) Music and the Politics of Culture. London: Lawrence & Wishart

Auslander, P (2006) Performing Glam Rock: Gender and Theatricality in Popular Music. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press

Gracyk, T (1996) Rhythm and Noise: An Aesthetics of Rock. London: I.B. Tauris

Wicke, P (1990) Rock Music, Culture, Aesthetics, and Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Goodwin, A (1993) Dancing in the Distraction Factory: Music Television and Popular Culture. London: Routledge

Reynolds, S (2005) Rip It Up and Start Again: Post Punk 1978-84 London: Faber and Faber

Denselow, R (1989) When The Music’s Over: The Story of Political Pop. London: Faber

Middleton, R (1990) Studying Popular Music. Milton Keynes: Open University Press

Draper, R ( 1990) Rolling Stone Magazine: The Uncensored History. New York; London: Doubleday

Bennett, T (1993) Rock and Popular Music: Politics, Policies, Institution. London and New York: Routledge

Wall, T (2003) Studying Popular Music Culture. London: Hodder Arnold

Lister, M (2013) The Photographic Image in Digital Culture. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis

Hilfiger, T (1999) Rock Style: How Fashion Moves To Music. New York: Universe

Stevenson, N (2006) David Bowie: Fame, Sound and Vision. Cambridge: Polity Press

Beckman, J (2005) Made in the UK: The Music of Attitude 1977-1983. New York: Powerhouse Books

David, P (2007) Rock Music in Performance. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Fowles, P. Wade, G (2009) Concise History of Rock Music. Pacific, Mo; London: Mel Bay

Duffett, M (2013) Understanding Fandom: An Introduction To The Study of Media Fan Culture. London: Bloomsbury

Bayton, M (1998) Frock Rock: Women Performing Popular Music. Oxford: Oxford University

Gorman, P (2006) The Look: Adventures in Rock and Pop Fashion. London: Adelita

McRobbie, A (1999) In The Culture Society: Art, Fashion and Popular Music. London: Routledge

Marion, L (2007) Gender in the Music Industry: Rock, Discourse and Girl Power. Aldershot: Ashgate

Shepherd, J (1997) Music and Cultural Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press

Hodkinson, P (2001) Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture. Oxford: Berg

Sabin R (1999) Punk Rock So What? The Cultural Legacy of Punk. London: Routledge

Everett, W (2008) Expressions in Pop-Rock Music: Critical and Analytical Essays. New York: Routledge

Grossberg, L (1997) Dancing in Spite of Myself: Essays on Popular Music. Durham, NC; London: Duke University Press

Gillett, C (1996) The Sound of the City: The Rise of Rock and Roll. London: Souvenir Press

Rimmer, D (2003) New Romantics: The Look. London: Omnibus

Shore, M (1985) The Rolling Stone Book of Rock Video. London: Sidgwick & Jackson

Alexander, A. Harris, C (1998) Theorizing Fandom: Fans, Subculture and Identity. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press

Pollock, B. Wagman, B (1978) The Face of Rock & Roll: Images of a Generation. London, New English Library

Barthes, R (1977) Image-Music-Text. London: Fontana

Hebdige, D (2012) Subculture The Meaning of Style. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis

Ang, I (1991) Desperately Seeking The Audience. London: Routledge

Bruin, K (2012) Adapting Idols Authenticity, Identity and Performance in a Global Television Format. Farnham: Ashgate Publishings LTD

Wharton, C (2013) Advertising as Culture. Bristol: Intellect

Klein, B (2009) As Heard on Television. Farnham: Ashgate

Bennett, A (2005) Culture and Everyday Life. London: SAGE Publications

Burns, L. Lafrance, M (2002) Disruptive Divas: Feminism, Identity & Popular Culture. New York; London: Routledge

Hancock, J (2013) Fashion in Popular Culture. Bristol: Intellect

Stubbs, D (2009) Fear of Music: Why People Get Rothko But Don’t Get Stockhausen. Winchester: O Books

DiBlasi, A. Willis, V (2014) Geek Rock An Exploration of Music and Subculture. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

Jones, M (1987) Getting It On: The Clothing of Rock ‘n’Roll. New York, NY: Abbeville Press

Warwick, J (2007) Girl Groups, Girl Culture Popular music and Identity in the 1960s. New York; London: Routledge

Deveraux, E. Dillane, A. Power, M (2011) Morrissey Fandom, Representation and Identities. Bristol: Intellect

Norris, C (1989) Music and the Politics of Culture. London: Lawrence & Wishart

Negus, K (1999) Music Genres and Corporate Cultures. London: Routledge

Sexton, J (2007) Music, Sound and Multimedia: From Live To The Virtual. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Raiton, D. Watson, P (2011) Music Video and the Politics of Representation. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press

Biddle, I. Knight, V (2008) Music, National Identity and the Politics of Location Between the Global and the Local. Farnham: Ashgate Publishings LTD

Crafts, S. Cavicci, D. Keil, C (2011) My Music Explorations of Music in Daily Life. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press

Willis, E. Aronowitz, N (2011) Out of the Vinyl Deeps Ellen Willison Rock Music. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

Bate, D. (2009) Photography The Key Concepts Oxford: Berg Publishers

Sumrall, H (1994) Pioneers of Rock and Roll: 100 Artists Who Changed The Face of Rock. Billboard 1994

Shuker, R (2012) Popular Music Culture:The Key Concepts London: Routledge

Duffett, M (2013) Popular Music Fandom Identities, Roles and Practices. London: Routledge 2013

Sturken, M. Cartwright, L (2009) Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York: Oxford University Press

Forrester, M (2012) Psychology of the Image. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis

Chafla, E. Easley, E (2006) Rock Tease. The Golden Years Of Rock T-Shirts. New York: Abrams Image

Whiteley, S. (2013) Sexing The Groove Popular Music and Gender Hoboken: Taylor and Francis

Krapf, N (2012) Songs in Sepia and Black and White. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press

Gonzalez, A (2012) The Emotions and Cultural Analysis. Farnham, Ashgate Publishings

Walliss, J. Newport, K (2009) The End All Around Us The Apocalypse and Popular Culture London: Equinox Publishings LTD

Pinson, H (2010) The Jazz Image Seeing Music Through Herman Leonard’s Photography Jackson: University Press of Mississippi

Reddington, H (2007) The Lost Women of Rock Music: Female Musicians of the Punk Era Aldershot: Ashgate

Salzman, E. Dezsy, T (2009) The New Music Theater: Seeing The Voice Hearing The Body New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press

Whiteley, S (1992) The Space Between The Notes Rock and The Counter Culture Hoboken: Taylor and Francis

Shuker, R (2008) Understanding Popular Music Culture Abingdon: Routledge

Simonelli, D (2012) Working Class Heroes Rock Music and British Society in the 1960s and 1970s Hoboken; S.I. : Lexington Books

Youtube (2012) Walking Around Downtown with the Boombox Guy by Crazy. Talk [online] https://www/

Youtube, Harris, M (2013) Boombox Commercial, Satellite TV Advertising by McDonalds [online]

Kent Online (2015) Blue Plaque Honoring Rolling Stones Unveiled At

Dartford Railway Station [online] available from < February 2015]

Letters of Notes (2013) He Is Called Mick Jagger [online] available from < [17th February 2015]

Youtube (2015) Bitter Sweet Symphony by The Verve [online] available from < February 2015]

Chafla, E. Easley, E (2006) Rock Tease. The Golden Years Of Rock T-Shirts. New York: Abrams Image

Magnum Photos (2015) Martin Parr Manchester. Osmonds Fan. 1973 [online]

available from <; [17 February 2015]

Mollison, J [n.d.]The Disciples [online] available from < [18th December 2014]

Harries, P [n.d.]Marilyn Manson[online] available from < February 2015]

Youtube (2015)Dad Makes Fun of His Son For Looking Like Marilyn Manson by Alan Jr [online] available from <>%5B17th February 2015]

Powerhouse Books (2015) Made in the UK Limited Edition [online]

Westwood, V [2015] Vivienne Westwood [online]

Open College of Arts (2002) Martin Parr Photographic Works 1971-2000. [online] available from <; [5th February 2015]

Questia (2013) Glam! The Performance of Style by Bob Dickinson [online] [15th December 2014]

Art of Fiction (2013) Review: Glam at Liverpool Tate by Adrian Slatcher [online] [15 December 2014]

The Guardian (2013) Glam! At Tate Liverpool: Through A Mirrorball Darkly [online] [15th December 2014]

The Telegraph (2013) Glam! The Performance of Style, Tate Liverpool, Review [online] The-Performance-of-Style-Tate-Liverpool-review.html

Tate Gallery (2015) Glam! The Performance of Style [online] [online] 15th December 2014

Parr, M (n.d.) Martin Parr [online][15th December 2014]

Guitar World (2014) ‘Jimmy Page by Jimmy Page’ Book: Limited-Edition, Hard- Stamped Copies Available Now [online] [1st March 2015]

Amazon (2015) Death of A Polarod- A Manics Family Album [online]

Mail Online (2014) Vogue Pays Tribute to Anna Wintours Vogue Cover [online] -pays-homage-Anna-Wintour-s-Vogue-Cover.html [15th December 2014]

Phaidon (n.d.)Martin Parr: Jubilee Street Party, Elland, Yorkshire, 1977 [online]

MoMA (2010) Live Through This: Nan Goldin in Pictures by Women: A History of Modern Photography [online] [24th October 2014]

Rochat, D (2013) The 3 Song Rule/Rant [online] [28 October 2014]

PetaPixel (2013) Does Everybody Get To Be A Concert Photographer Now? By David Becker[online] [28th October 2014]

RedmondPie (2010) Apple Releases New iPod Touch 4G and iPod Nano 6G Ads [online] [28th October 2014]

Britannica Kids (2015) A Man Walks By An Outdoor Advertisment For The iPod Portable Media Player by Apple Along A Street in San Francisco, Calif [online] -man-walks-by-an-outdoor-advertisement-for-the-iPod [1st March 2015]

Blog (2013) Lessons From The Pros: Ziggy Stardust by Nasty Gal [online]

Rock, M (2013) Photography [online]

[27th February 2015]

Muldowney, A (2011) Death Of The Polaroid: A Manics Family Album – by Nicky Wire [online] [27th February 2015]

Wallpapers (2009) Maybach Zeppelin Through The Eyes of David LaChapelle [online]

LaChapelle, D (n.d.) David LaChapelle [online] [1st March 2015]

Imgkid (n.d.) David Bowie Mick Ronson [online] [27th February 2015]

Amazon (2015) The Disciples [online] available from <>%5B

26th January 2015]

Amusing Planet (2011) The Disciples: Fans of Rock Concerts by James Mollison [online] available from <>%5B18th December 2014]

Brain Pickings (2011) The Disciples: James Mollison’s Portraits of Music Subculture by

Maria Popova [online] james-mollison/ [17th December 2014]

Castle Galleries (2013) The Ronnie Wood Collection [online] [27th February 2015]

Preston, N (n.d.) Neal Preston [online] [27th February 2015]

Wood, R (2010) Ronnie Wood [online] [27th February 2015]

Manic Street Preachers (2015) Manic Street Preachers [online] [ 27th February 2015]

Youtube (2015) Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen Official [online] [27TH February 2015]

Youtube (2015) Dani California by Red Hot Chilli Peppers [online] [18th December 2014]

Youtube (2015) Madonna VEVO[online] [12th January 2015)

Wired (2015) Wired Magazine [online] [24th January 2015]

Vogue (2015) Vogue Magazine [online] [15th December 2014]

Grohl, D (2014) Sonic Highways [TV] (IMBD) [2nd March 2015]

Corbijn, A (2007) Control (IMDB) [dvd] [2nd March 2015]

Sigismondi,F (2010) The Runaways (IMDB) [dvd] [2nd March 2015]

McMillan, K (n.d.) Kate McMillan (online) [2nd March 2015]

Blight, D (2014) Daniel Campbell Bight (online) [2nd March 2015]

Liebovitz, A (2011) Annie Liebovitz at Work. Great Britain: Jonathan Cape

Wire, N (2011) Death of A Polaroid. A Manics Diary. London: Faber and Faber

Rock, M (2010) Exposed. San Francisco: Chronicle Books

Page, J (2014) Jimmy Page. Surrey: Genesis Publications

Gray, J. Sandvoss, C. Harrington, C (2007) Fandom, Identities and Communities in a Mediated World. New York; London: New York University

Hollander, A (1993) Seeing Through Clothes. Berkeley, California: University of California Press

Wells, L (2009) Photography A Critical Introduction. London and New York: Routledge

Howell, J (2005) ‘Artists To Icon: Early Photographs Of Elvis, Dylan, And The Beatles’. [online] Aperature Winter 2005 (Issue 181) Available from: Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson [20th December 2014]

Cashdan, M (2010) ‘Live Souls’ [online] Modern Painters. March 2010 (Volume 22, Issue 22) Available from: Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson [20th December 2014]

Strange, R (2008) ‘Punk. No One is Innocent’. [online] Modern Painters. September (2008) (Vol. 20 Issue 7) Available from: Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson [20th December 2014]

Paytress, M (2008) ‘The Dying Art of Gig Photography’ [online] Creative Review. November 2008 (Volume 28. Issue 10) Available from: Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson [20th December 2014]

Bell, J (2009) ‘Stars in his Eyes’. [online] Sight and Sound. July 2009 (Volume 19, Issue 7) Available from: Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson [20th December 2014]

Beaudoin, R; Kania, A (2012) ‘A Musical Photograph?’ [online] Journal Of Aesthetic And Art Criticism Winter 2012 (Issue 1)

Frances, R (2013) ‘Music I’ve Seen’ [online] Aperture Fall 2013 (issue 212) Available from: Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson [20th December 2014]

Hagan, D (2011) ‘It’s Only Rock ‘n’ Roll’ [online] Art New England. November 2011 (Volume 2011) Available from: Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson [20th December 2014]

Willis-Tropea, L (2011) ‘Glamour Photography And The Institutionalization Of Celebrity By Photography And Culture’ [online] Photography and Culture November 2011 (Volume 4. Issue 3) Available from: Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson [20th December 2014]

The Guardian (2014)Youth subculture. Where Have They Gone To [online] [15th December 2014]


Definitive Post





Anne Marsh wrote, “the subject is always trying to act out an image of the ideal self”. (Marsh 2003 cited in Devereux, Dillane and Power 143:3 ). Allowing people to portray themselves using music and fashion, for how they feel expresses them and becomes part of their identity. This can mean that it is easier to express what the member of the subculture want to say or how they feel but can also build a connection with people more easily. That can make them feel like they can relate with others or give them people to socialize with.  As recalled by Malcolm McClaren “People would sit on the bus or hang around in coffee bars with an album on display to show everyone… what type of music they were into, that they were members of this secret society”. (Gorman 2006) Showing how important it is for people to become a part of subculture and create connections with others of the same interest.


Focusing on two bodies of work, one called The Osmond’s by Martin Parr and the other called The Disciples by James Mollison. This presentation will look to show the way in which both sets of fans are represented based on the subculture they are connected to and how the images are interpreted to feature their character. As David Bates suggests, “the work of photography should be the ‘unmasking’ of appearances not making myths through appearance” (Bate 2009) implying that the images express the individual’s identity in terms of the subculture they belong to. As the images capture the character of the person through their appearance, attitude and interests. Therefore, what you see is an indication of someone’s mind.  Raising the questions “How is a visual image of someone formed from a style of music?” and “What does the image mean in terms of culture?”


Sarah Thompson best describes subculture as “ideologies… by which youth imagine their own and other social groups, [asserting] their distinctive character and [affirming] that they are not anonymous members of an undifferentiated mass”. (Thompson 1990 cited in Thornton 10:4). Showing that youth form their appearance based on characteristics that resemble their interests and implying they build a society from it. As Thornton said in terms of music, “the experience of musical authenticity is perceived as a cure for alienation. (because it offers [the] feeling of community”. (Thompson 1990 cited in Thornton 10:4). Giving the sense that the interest in music unites people who hold similarity in what they are influenced by.

From this the fashion portrays the interest and knowledge to others that surround them. This informs others that hold the same interests and similar appearance, that they are interested in the same music, turning the fashion into a uniform while also expressing their difference to anyone who isn’t a member of the group. However, at the same time they also strive to be different from the others in the subculture to create an identity, that becomes more about an expression of them selves compared to everyone else. As Thornton explained, [members of a subculture build] “the interaction of people’s perceptions of themselves with others’ view of them” to form a unique look that portrays them differently to the others in the subculture. (Gelder and Thornton 1997 cited in Hodkinson 9:20) That way the member is able to tell others this is who I am and how I feel. From this I am seen this way but I’m unique and not like everyone else.


In the 1970’s, the country was going through a time classed as “Thatcherism” (BBC History 2015) where a large amount of the countries industries were being closed down by the then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher as she wanted people to take control of their own lives, resulting in helping cripple the country more, from what was started by the previous government whose encouragement of over spending had caused a recession. Bringing into account the strength of the girl’s confidence to show strength of women, who had the most power at the time due to Margaret Thatcher being in charge while the girl rebels against society.

At the time Martin Parr created a project based on five female fans of The Osmond’s because he “was interested in the [ordinary] of life. He wanted to observe and record”…”people’s”…”values, attitudes and the trivia they possessed and discussed”. (Open College of Arts 2002). In these images Parr manages to read subculture into the subject of his work to show it’s dominance within society at the time. Through looking at the way the girls express themselves with fashion and memorabilia.

This image in particular connotes a female fan, dressed in an outfit that she’s designed herself to appear in Parr’s words as a “hippie”. (Magnum Photos 2014). Meaning that she is seen to be “rejecting convention”, (Cowley, Elliott and Knight 1997) so is seen as going against the majority of societies persuasion. Supported by her wearing a sunflower as stated by David Simonelli “Adult norms were opposed in”… “what was thought to be a strong individuality”, [that] “was usually found in thrift shops”… [when] “trying to achieve a “flower revolution”. (Simonelli 2012). Showing that who ever wear’s the flower is passively in rebellion against adult authority like with the punk scene.

While sporting images and writing that illustrate her love for The Osmond’s giving the impression that as Agnes Rocamora and Alfred O’Neill voiced “these images”… “showed ‘real’ fashion coming ‘from the streets”. (Rocamora and O’Neill 2008 cited in Bull 156: 24). Implying that the fashion of the time is centered on what people come up with them selves. While the person looks at the viewer through a direct gaze building a connection with the audience. As Susan Kismaric and Eva Respini says “creating the impression of everyday contemporary lifestyle being recorded [as]: ‘fashion as it lived’, (Kismaric and Respini 2004 cited in Bull 159: 3) telling us that the clothing expresses her opinions and interests.


On the other hand James Mollison has documented subculture through music fans, by creating the photobook project “The Disciples”. Giving the impression from the title, that has become common in society, that the fans are followers of a god known as “celebrity culture”. (The Guardian 2014). Where the use of technology and social media has bought people together, fans are able to be in contact with their desired celebrities everyday life more easily, encouraging the fan to become more like their favorite celebrity.

Due to this, Mollison “photographed fans outside different concerts. [As he was] fascinated by the different tribes of people that attended them, and how people emulate celebrity to form their identity”. (Amusing Planet 2011) Conveying that people are taking parts of there desired celebrities’ style to help portray them selves.


In each image Mollison portrayed the fans that had the most extravagant image or who appeared to look more like the musician they were there to see on the night. Here the fans are all shown to be wearing black clothing and excessive makeup associated with the Goth subculture forming their appearance to be mixed in with the performing band, Marilyn Manson.

Out of a vast range of images taken outside the gigs with a portable studio, select amounts were montaged together into rows of eight to ten people forming a queue, depicting the reason why they were there that night. This bought in the idea that the people are part of a clique who have the same interests and style of identity. [Beginning to show] “How the concerts became events for people to come together with surrogate ‘families’, a chance to relive their youth or try and be part of a scene that happened before they were born”. (Amusing Planet 2011). Saying that the reason for subculture is to bring together people who hold a resemblance in their style, to help them make connections with like-minded people.

At the same time, the removal of the surroundings make it that the viewer is drawn to the style and fashion before looking to the people’s faces. Where you get a direct gaze from the people connoting a sense of confidence and identity “to represent people from a variety of communities. Thus, fashion and music share the potential for expression of the self and the community of which one originates”. (Miller 2011). Allowing people to portray an identity that they feel represents them and that will express how they feel more clearly within society.


Martin Parr’s “The Osmond’s” and James Mollison’s “The Disciples” don’t hold many similarities. However, both portraiture projects focus on the clothing being worn and what the person-photographed interests are shown as being. As Thornton explained “Subcultral capitals fuel rebellion against, or rather escape from, the trappings of parental class”. (Thornton 1995). This brings in the sense of subculture and the fans wanting to express themselves through their favorite artists rather than follow what they are being told to do.


While the two projects hold many more differences.  The main one being that the two projects were created for different reasons, Parr’s having the idea of subculture read into his images where as Mollison’s is focused on understanding subculture.  However, with Parr’s imagery you get more information from the image being a part of subculture due to the surroundings being included. Telling the viewer this is what these girls wear daily, but except for the pictures used as accessories. The clothing suggests that the girl’s could be a fan of any artist around at the time. Where as with Mollison’s the context in the image is removed due to the white background so you don’t know whether the people dress like it regularly or if it is just something they wear for the concerts. It is though, clear that the people are fans of Marilyn Manson as they form their identity to turn them into him. Enforcing Chris Rojek’s point that celebrities are seen as “godlike people who exist in a realm above the rest of us”. (Rojek 2001 cited in Bull 172:8). Meaning that the celebrities are what subcultures look to as leaders who live above the rest of us, so the subcultures aspire to be like them through turning themselves into their chosen celebrity.



Overall identity has become a prominent part of today’s society especially when it comes to expressing yourself. Where the idea of subculture has taken on extremes in which people appear more over time as their idols or in a style familiar to a subculture that they are a part of. Moreover, they tend to create a response from many that is mainly unpopular. Yet in both these projects, both photographers try to combat the stigma that is seen. Through Mollison looking to understand and explain what he finds in a simple and clear format that can be related to by the viewer. On the other hand Parr looks to show the participant as a person who uses their identity to express their opinion and support what they believe.

Bringing about the idea of a face behind the style to give more of a human characteristic to what is usually seen as i-D once suggested “every sub-culture breeds its own moral panic, every moral panic is stereotyped” (i-D 1990 cited in Thornton 134:31). Saying that a subculture gives an identity but is not really accepted by society as buyers of Mollison’s work explain after viewing the book “It is surprising and funny and mortifying. There are musical acts that I know and others that I have never heard of and their fans are all fascinating”… “this is thought provoking” Effie (Amazon 2015) as another recounts “the photos as shown need no words”. Old Timer (Chief) (Amazon 2015). Even though “the name of the bands that the fans are from [are] at the bottom of each page”…”most of the time, you don’t even need to read the name to know what band is being represented”. l.Schneider (Amazon 2015). Reiterating that the people are displaying the artist or band’s style so much that what you see when looking at the person is the music.

Presented in this video


For my presentation I did my talk on subculture and the way it or rather the people involved in it are misunderstood. So instead to display what is meant by the ideal of subculture according to the people. In this case the ones being photographed so that the meaning of subculture to the fans that create the behavior are understood and not just doubted through voices such as the medias. This was due to my interest in music and wanting to look at a project through a theme unknown to me so to try something new.


When doing the research I felt comfortable as I don’t mind doing research however throughout my projects I am usually drawn to using the internet as it is more easily accessible than travelling to the library so I decided I’d also focus on using more books and journals though out. My main problem when doing my research though was that my idea was not clear in that I had five idea’s which most linked to subculture but I wasn’t aware of the meaning of subculture at the time. Therefore, I wasted a lot of time jumping back and forth between my ideas.

When it came to my script I was uncomfortable with writing it as I always find the option to be confusing, as I know what I want to say but putting it into words in an analytical format is something I find difficult to do. In this case I still found it hard to do even though I had all my research and knew the artists work well. This combined with the idea of presenting caused me extra nerves that got worse towards the end as the time drew closer and I doubted more and more if I was doing my script correctly.

However, the feedback when presenting or talking it through with different people especially when talking to lecturers or mentors relaxed me a bit. As I have up till now mainly ran my idea past a group of friends unless I’ve had an apt as part of the lesson. Yet up till the time I presented I still had bad nerves with feeling stressed over whether my script was correct and the idea of presenting being daunting to me.

In the end though once I had got my idea sorted to just be the one option research wise everything fitted well together even in terms of the script. Moreover, when presenting in the gallery I felt more relaxed as compared to presenting in the library the week before.  Due to this I felt more confident in my work and even with a lack of confidence when presenting or speaking in a large crowd usually, managed to be overcome within the final presentation. My only issue other than the fact I talk quickly any how was that I got distracted by the sun a few times and due to how bright it was I repeated a line once. However, this is not something that couldn’t be helped so I am happy with how my presentation went.

After completing the module though, if I was to change anything about the way I worked other than already knowing now that it wouldn’t be as daunting as I imagined it to be. It would have to be the way in which I organised my ideas so to run them through more quickly to narrow it down to one idea straight away. Due to feeling the time of looking at different options caused me more stress and led to me not working on my script as much as I planned to. As for with changing my length of time presenting I would still get nervous if I had longer or shorter amounts of time yet I feel with doing presentations more since start of third year, I am able to move past the set back more easily.

From the research and plan to focus this year mainly based on a music outcome I have managed to come up with my idea for fmp based on culture and memories that remain for music events. Due to a comment made during a piece of my research for my symposium. Linking my idea for the two modules together and already giving me the understanding of the scene around, in the different decades. Due to this a lot of my research or my symposium in general has formed a lot of research towards my fmp so for me to carry my symposium on in a way of being more comfortable to me.

Presentation Research

With starting out with my images being the main focus of my script I felt that would be the best place to work with my presentation. Looking to then expand on my script I marked out places where I could have new scenes that included key points to stand out.

Going for a more detailed presentation I looked for clips to represent subculture and it’s acceptance coming across this video.

Here a guy is known for going out with his boom box in America walking around at night and having fun with people interested in his behaviour. In this he is seen to approach a guy who’s with a group of people, of friends interested in the same music as him socializing. He owns a clothing shop and with talking hangs the guys with the boombox t-shirt’s (merchandise) in his shop window to support him. Emulating how subculture reaches out to people through word of mouth.

While this video used as a McDonald’s advert showed a young lad behaving as though he was doing break dancing while eating his food. Encouraging the guy (his father) sat at the table to join in a it catches on after being in surprise at the behaviour. Showing in an advertised aspect how subculture becomes popular.

With reading my script more I felt the videos didn’t really fit the scene so much but the idea of bringing people in a subculture did. Due to this I turned to looking for more video’s or research I could use. Considering Malcolm McClaren’s anecdote about having album’s on display to show people that they were part of a secret society.  As he pointed out the way in which Mick Jagger and Keith Richards first met. Making me want to look for this angle. Finding a website with the letter Keith wrote to his aunt about the chance meeting and the blue plaque that came from the meeting it in newspaper.

To make the video more interesting and still wanting to hold the idea of brining people together. When watching football I thought of how sport is conveyed as bringing people together and how the song Bitter Sweet Symphony by The Verve although holding no connection to football has come to represent this.

Thinking of the video though I also considered how the video focuses on the vocalist Richard Ashcroft, walking down the street in clothing iconic to his style and familiar to his genre of music. At the same time walking past people who hold a style of different subcultures such as punk’s creating a reaction portrayed to their stereotype.  Before having other people come behind him, following him down the street as though they have seen him dressed in his fashion, singing his song and related to his style and music so deciding to join him and building on a subculture of their own.

Considering this representation of the fashion and that goes with music in general I looked to include the images from the book I looked at called Rock Tease focusing on documenting the rock t-shirt’s that have been seen within select bands.


Here documenting the representation through the image portraying what the images show. As with this one showing the movement during the performance, focusing on the musician Jethro Tull and capturing the essence of the performance and relaxation from the colour depicting a starry night. Implying a relaxed feel associated to the music.

While also thinking of this representation of style and moving on to the images of the Osmond’s style and portraying the comparison between the people James Mollison documented and Marilyn Manson himself. I recalled a video that Kerrie Caine and I had spoke about in an odd conversation about music. Where a lad was taken on the Rikki Lake show as a way of showing him up to society for looking inappropriate as his father did not understand or approve of his appearance. Yet when people became to understand him or the other people around him they accepted the appearance more and changed their opinion towards it.

Overall this research combined, I felt represented the imagery and points being made within my script.

Set Up of Presentation

To begin with my plan was to create my presentation through Prezi so that it was interesting to the viewer. However, with hearing in class that it isn’t the most effective way because the audiences don’t always enjoy them. I decided to scrap the idea and go with the option of PowerPoint instead. Being more confident in creating a PowerPoint due to the use of them since primary school and understanding how to present a PowerPoint from teachings I had had to make one effective to the viewer I put off creating my PowerPoint till the end.

With wanting to make my presentation more interesting I mapped out ideas so to make it different and unique.


With doing this I felt the best option would be to use videos familiar to people.

However with being asked to send my presentation with the script and bibliography to Anthony by a set day I set about creating a basic version of how I had it planned in my head. With already having my two main images, I used that as the basis for my layout.

Wanting to keep the layout simple, basic and clean I went for a white option that also fitted with Mollison’s images and the light background in Parr’s imagery. Before then using black text to go with the black and white image and black scene from the goth look I felt it fitted well.

Going with a basic theme that went with the design that also appealed to me I created a presentation with full detail in it. The idea to begin with being put the quotes in and then work imagery from that so to replace the text giving me this version.

However, with emailing this option to Jess Oakes towards presenting I found the file was too large. Therefore, I used my break to reduce the amount of examples and slides so that it wasn’t as busy.

With then presenting my work I got the feedback of not to use the theme from PowerPoint. Removing this but wanting to keep the white theme I felt the best and most effective way was to keep it blank and just fit my images on to an empty slide with no design. However, to make it more interesting to the audience I then added videos from Youtube that I edited in premiere pro so to use small select scenes that represented what I was saying. Giving me my final version.

Run Up to Final Script

Over the Christmas holidays, we had been given the task of writing our script or an outline for the script.  With feeling that the idea of subculture was perfect for my work I had started writing my outline.

This went along the lines of


What is subculture?

Martin Parr

James Mollison



When starting my writing I wasn’t sure how my script was meant to be turning out. In my mind I had already pre-visualised the layout but each time it turned into an essay and I wasn’t sure if this was right. However, I decided to just go ahead with what I was thinking and see how it turned out. Later on when having a talk with Daniel, I raised this issue and found that this was ok and how it was meant to be going. Turning to putting these ideas into a physical item this is what I came up with.

Screen Shot 2015-02-26 at 20.26.08 Screen Shot 2015-02-26 at 20.26.57

In looking at this version I felt myself that my script was too music related, when also speaking to Anthony he supported that point about what I had wrote so far. This made me start writing again but keeping the same layout just different text. In my case removing the music to turn it into photography.

Leading me on to attempt 3

Rewriting what I had wrote, as a class we was asked to have the main 3 outcomes, the script, a presentation and a bibliography so that between the three running the module they could read them towards our next apt. With this apt I got the feedback from Daniel about my introduction being to photographic and even though I had included music in it as the subject and mentioned throughout the script I had not mentioned it in my introduction. On top of this my script on the day would be hard to read as it was a large mass of text so I wouldn’t be able to follow it so easily. The best option would be to break it down into smaller chunks. Also as I had highlighted my quotes as a reminder of where my citations go, making it stand out that I hadn’t done my citations. Alongside a few spelling alterations I set about making these alterations to my work.

Creating attempt 4

Not sure on whether I’d get a response from Daniel before the next apt I decided to run my script past Anthony to make sure I was going in the right direction and that I had done my alterations right. With this version I was told again to make my introduction more photographic. Along with him suggesting to book an apt with CAW (the writing specialists). Plus to make my writing be less descriptive as could see what was in the images and talk about more of what it represented.

With previous checking with caw always being full I managed to after rechecking over the day, the next day gets an appointment with a woman called Emma until then though I decided to work on my other alterations. Taking on board what had been said I decided to start with a fresh document and go back to basics. Adding the layout, the images and then start writing. Also thinking about what had been suggested in a previous apt of focus on the body and then work the introduction and conclusion from that I decided to try writing this way. This was beneficial to me. Look at the information I had gained from my research and what I could source on the images I started writing a deeper body where I explained the quotes and the images rather than describing them. Having close to a complete draft for my script I took this to CAW the next day.

Attempt 5

Going to CAW with a printed out version I then had help to reword some sentences to make them clearer to read and so that the terming fitted them better so that it ran more smoothly.


Attempted 6

Once I had sorted this with Emma, I still hadn’t got a full script due to leaving out my introduction and comparison to write afterwards. This meant that once I made these alterations I got to work on finishing off this latest look to my script.

Attempt 7

Feeling a bit comfortable with my script I then set about practicing it with recording my speaking. Finding that it was too long for my 10minute presentation limit I then got to removing parts.

Attempt 8

With a now more fitting script to the time I took it to lesson with plans of getting feedback. Having the presentations split over two days we were split into two groups day 1 and day 2. Going to a separate room with the others for day 1 we set about presenting our scripts to each other and giving each other feedback. Also using the option of a presentation and not having much difference to my original version that had been sent towards the apt from attempt 3 I decided to use this version. Finding from this my presentation was ok, my only issue other than the presentation not fitting it properly, was it had extended my time. Making me want to make my script more slim line so to fit the time.

Attempt 9

Having the changes to my script I was prepared to present it to the class, Anthony and one of the two mentors that was in, on day 1. However, in more of a focus on the script I had not done much work on my presentation other than creating a basic layout. With organizing the rest of my presentation within the break I set about presenting my latest script to the class. Where I got this recording and script.

During this I didn’t feel like this presentation went well and don’t know whether it was due to knowing it was my last presentation, lack of organization in the PowerPoint in the first few slides, always doubting myself or just something about being in that room but I felt more nervous than ever. Making me feel like my presentation didn’t go well and questioning my script and myself. However, just going with my feedback I tried to make the best out of it and worked on my script a bit more to add in the more detail on the areas while moving round the layout so to fit in with Kate’s suggestions.

Attempt 10

With having some confusion on my feedback I tried re-listening to the recording and writing down the feedback so I could understand it at my own speed rather than a recording. With making these alterations I then went to recording myself again and practicing with a more fitting presentation so to time how long it took. Before working it till I got it close to 10 minutes. This gave me my final version ready to present on the day, just needing to be practiced.

Subculture Proposal

After arranging my research and collating it together I felt the best was to make my idea clear would be to create another proposal that outlined the idea of subculture speaking about my work giving a brief description about what I was going to look at to form my presentation.


For this module I am going to be crating a research project through the means of a symposium based around the idea of music through the means of subculture and how music is portrayed through fashion.

My project will look to show how people represent themselves in terms of fashion. So to express their taste in music through fashion and what the fashion explains. So to represent their opinion, thoughts and influences in consideration with emotional impact.

For this I will approach the issue by looking at a range of sources for my research including books and academic articles based on essay and of people who have asked questions about the art of music and photography. Magazines in which subculture is a main speaking point. On top of looking at my own knowledge from doing shoots and previously watching practitioners working in this area. For a deeper insight I am also going to look for interviews done by iconic photographers who have become established in the field so to gain their thoughts on the subject.

This means I will be focusing on the work of Martin Parr’s project The Osmond’s and James Mollison The Disciples. Looking at how their way of working in photography, the time when they created their work and how they created it. Alongside context of the time has impacted on their work.

After collecting my research I will arrange my sources so that I can gather as many points as possible and be able to collate my research from previous points that build a comparison on my topic. Forming my finding into a script for me to use in my presentation at a symposium

In terms of subculture and my lack of understanding at the moment this will be hard. However, with a lot of my previous research linking into this idea, and crossing into my other ideas. The research from my 5 ideas will be bought together for me to create one large life boat post that will define all the research together. Making it easier to understand my research more clearly.

Life Boat Post of Research

Before writing my first script based on subculture I decided to print off all my research and combine it together to make it clearer to me.


In doing this I got the understanding of rock n roll was influenced by blues music. When it first came about people did not accept it and the only place you could hear it was in fair grounds. However, with popularity of people like Elvis it became popular but the times became associated with male artists. Over time other genre’s came from it including the teddy boy’s who are said to have the first subculture fashion. Yet with each genre came new fashion and more scenes that helped what people wanted to represent and say while in turn enforced sexualisation where the idea of screaming girls enforced the understanding of fandom but women on stage wasn’t accepted. Yet guys looked to create a dream and represent their life. With politics and in terms of Thatcherism music changed as being able to relate and became more of rebelling against society as music became more political. Enforcing the most represented subculture, punk with an ethos of ‘Do It Yourself’ but this scene was only interested in selling clothing. Where as before it was finding others in the same scene by having music on display through the use of albums in society creating word of mouth that subculture relies on.  With each subculture there has been moral panic from lack of understanding, media and acceptance as music has become more commercialised.

However, since the 1980’s music has become to be recycled and people relate to the songs on an emotional level. Then buy merchandise that represents what they want to say as many turn their fashion into a replication of the genre or the musician. Which then takes over from the albums in representing the secret society. Yet with technology fashion has died down in society and subculture has become to take place online.

Photographic Influence

While also looking at different trends that were happening at the time. I came across a list of books representing fashion.


1950’S Britain had the first youth cult, the teddy boys. PAGE 20

People wanted to be part of a select society so would walk round with records under their arms showing off their taste in music. This was what Mick Jagger did when he bumped into Keith Richards, starting off the conversation PAGE 34

‘People would sit on the bus or hang around in coffee bars with an album on display to show everyone else what types of music they were into, that they were members of this secret society – Malcom McClaren PAGE 35

This was informative to me as it gave me an interesting case study in which to use and explained how music was when it started off with rock being popular or as a passive interaction.


“The various styles or “looks” were often not created by designers, but by groups of people, frequently from working class families, who wanted to express themselves and form their own identity. Paul Smith

A book based mainly on imagery that was of fashion between the punk years. Coinciding with quotes from well-known people in the music industry who were part of the music scene happening back then. Giving me an impression of what the punk scene looked like in the 70’s showing rebellion and giving a more expressive time as compared to now. This book is one that I will be considering using for imagery in my research.


Famous for conception of subcultures as deviant groups – emergence had to do with ‘the interaction of people’s perceptions of themselves with others’ view of then’ (Gelder and Thornton 1997: 11) – Page 9

Giving insight into what the goth scene is about and how it was formed in the first place. Informing me that it is one of the few scenes to stay consistent within society.


Another book I found was this one. It didn’t link to my work much as it was mainly based on tshirts that had been photographed from the music scenes. However, as subculture has now become a time of wearing less of an characteristic outfit and instead wearing a tshirt with the bands design and name from their merchandise store. This book shows more of subculture in todays day and age.

Through looking at these I started to think about how Marilyn Manson had been mentioned a few times in my research and the video that I had been shown about Alan Jr. Knowing the artist James Mollison had captured Marilyn Manson fans and worked on the idea of subculture I felt it fitted well. However, in comparison I like the idea of using the punk scene as it was so rich in representing it’s subculture but with returning to my research I felt the glam scene that Martin Parr looked at resembled the scene quite a bit and worked well alongside James Mollison’s images. Turning me to look for insight into the two projects coming across Amusing Planet and also looking at Amazon giving incite from others of their opinion to the work as a natural opinion.

After getting all my research together I decided to have a last look at the option of images and what they represent where I got these two books. Helping me understand the images in terms of fashion.


Having looked at how music and subculture had been understood in the past and present, I have not considered how it may be viewed in the future. As the understanding now is different to the understanding where it started out. With this book I did find that it is felt that subculture is becoming more of a technical understanding.

Before going for more of a self-expression I decided to view the book about representing the self.





The self is viewed within relation to how others see us.

Self-identity portrayed within groups with same interests

Talks about how people see and represent themselves within society from a psychology point of view as seen through the thoughts of theorists. Speaks of the different “self’s” in which people are seen and represent them selves with the conclusion based around how the fashion and attitude that we put across is how we see ourselves based on culture.

This way I was able to understand the way in which an image is perceived so to be instead of just being an image and what its meaning is. A image based on identity reads in more and although it connotes one thing this book showed that there is more than the one understanding of a person from it. Making me understand what images will understand in terms of identity.

IDEA 5 – Subculture

Being that it was now the start of the Christmas holidays and I had finally got together my idea of how I wanted my project to go with no other modules to distract. I felt more motivated towards getting all my research out the way from this I compiled a list of research of which will form my Bibliography and went to the library to source the books that I needed.

I decided to look at how music is referred to subculture where I found this book that explained it…


Speaks of how Rock ‘n’ Roll started off as fans wanting fun (1950’s = silent generation) while musicians wanted to speak out about their views they had on the political front. Songs were to speak out against mistreatment from the authorities. Some came from the war front and theatre while others were written on protests and in some cases were wrote in preparation for a protest to happen so to release the song. Giving an understanding of how rock music came about and started out to form into the idea of what I am talking about within my work. Giving an understanding and basis to my work.


Following me on to looking at this book that explained some terms to me in terms of definition or explanation.

  • Rebellion is the spirit of rock n roll
  • Punk rock was seen as the death of rock
  • Elvis Costello questions if glam should be considered as rock
  • After 1980s all music is recycled
  • Nowadays rock is questioned in terms of being new as compared to not being everywhere

This books title questioned a term that is usually known as ‘punk is dead’, ‘grunge is dead’ etc. but looks at the point of view as to whether it is or not in the eyes of journalists, critics, musicians and fans for why they are under that opinion. In the process though it had lead to me reading it after reading ‘WHEN THE MUSIC’S OVER’ of how the music started to now whether the change of music is classed as what it originated as. Giving me a chronological understanding of music and how it is conveyed from people with different roles within the scene

As the topic had become to be based on how  fans depict themselves I thought it might be of use for me to look into how fans portray themselves.


Ordinary audience – buys into the interest through viewing the interest or buying the songs.

  • Fan – Take more interest than the ordinary audience. Feel the need to buy merchandise etc.
  • Fandom           – Takes place in the fans head.
  • Anti fandom – Feels the need to vocalize their dislike.
  • Myths – Conjures up more of an interest as to the unknown about. Puts the star in a new realm.
  • Cults – Seeing the star as a religious icon.

Fan communities have both internal and external kinds of functions. Internally, they welcome, support and socialize individuals. Externally, they organize to act as a collective bodies that represent both their fans and their heroes. PAGE 249

This book was really helpful to me as it explained more of an emotional affect to subcultures. Explaining how people become members of a subculture and are not just fanatics or over the top-screaming people. This book I feel has become one of the most helpful books to me in terms of my work.


  • 1960’s rock music was described as underground music as it wasn’t mainstream or used in popular format PAGE 12
  • Simon Frith has argued that ‘Songs are more like plays than poems , songs work as speech and speech acts, bearing meaning not just semantically, but also as structure of sound that are direct signs of emotion and markers of character’ (Frith 1988c, 120). PAGE 129

Giving an emotional or heart felt speech about what the person feels about or being able to share in the experience of another through what they feel and experience.

  • ‘There are… no masses, there are only ways of seeing people as masses’ (William 1963, 289) PAGE 168
  • Joli Jensen has argued that such notions of ‘the fanatic’ and ‘mass society’ were still very influential in the study of fans well into the late 1980s. She asserts that ‘The literature on fandom is haunted by images of deviance’.

Saying that the idea of fandom is misunderstood.

This book was highly informative and compared two previous options I had looked at of the fan being influenced to be more of a relation and understanding. Compared to the idea of the fan being over the top  bringing together the two points that I had read about and had witnessed.

Returning me to my original thought of the emotional impact I decided to follow up with this book…


Unlike previous periods where fashion spoke a clear and schematic voice of class, gender, and etiquette, the current voice is chaotic, subtle, and complex. It speaks the voices of couture and outrage, power dressing and anarchy, extravagance and anti-chic, subtle dress codes and their disappearance-all at the same time. PAGE 134

Saying that fashion has become to be a way of speaking or saying this is who I am or how I feel about a topic without having to say anything.

Fashion of all art, act as a vehicle for unconscious fantasy. PAGE 139

The fashion expresses a persons thought, it is a way or reading a person and understanding them.
This essay based book looked into the part of what I wanted to cover to make my work deeper of the emotional impact and what the music and fashion means in terms of it. It did though inform me of how fashion has changed from what it was to what it is now.


While looking at fandoms I came across this book wrote by a fan based on fans of Morrissey. Here I got the points of:

  • Mod’s are based on fashion
  • The original skinheads had little interest in politics. The movement was intensely masculine (although there were female skinheads) and working class, and offered it’s members both a feeling of belongings and a powerful, intimidating image. Page 59
  • Style became important.
  • Photographic portraiture differs from other forms, such as painted portrait, in that it captures what is really there. Photography has the ability to show what Susan Sontag describes as “immortality” and to capture events that have occurred “for all time” (Sontag 2002). PAGE 143
  • The act of being photographed is a performative one where the subject takes on a role or an identity. As Anne Marsh writes “the relationship with the camera is narcissistic […] the subject is always trying to act out an image of the ideal self” (Marsh 2003).
  • Roland Barthes describes being in front of the camera as making another body, “I transform myself in advance into an image of the ideal self” (Barthes 1981: 10) PAGE 144/145
  • Morrissey says he is 98% image and that he has tried to pass himself off as being a human being PAGE 145

This book was informative and gave me some useful quotes when referring to music and photography at once. While showing how a musician is based on the culture. That Morrissey is influenced on political insight and the way in which he expresses that in his music. Turning into him then influencing the culture that influenced him. Creating a cycle of society influencing music to music being influenced by society while presenting it in terms of the artist and the musician. Making me want to look at music within society.

Returning back to how subculture is shown in a range of ways.  I started off with every day as the idea of subculture suggested it wasn’t just occasional happenings.


  • The way that we dress can serve either to confirm or to subvert various facets of our identities, such as our gender, race, class and age (1997:171) PAGE 94

Meaning that the way we dress can portray how someone wants to see themselves  or do see themselves.

  • Late modern individuals create personal images, designed both to situate the self and send out culturally – coded messages to others PAGE 94

Allowing people to reach out to others creating a community.

  • ‘Personalized’ identities have led to claims that it constitutes ‘a celebration of individualism’ (Mort, 996: 16) PAGE 94
  • Fashion is a form of social power (Rucker et al., 1999) PAGE 98

It gives the impression of understanding and knowledge.

This book looks at how music and fashion are used within society before turning to greater reach of everyday in a more global aspect through advertising. Then looking at how it influences different age ranges and the way other works have spoken about the theme. It was informative and useful to give me quotes and insight into how music and fashion is portrayed in society.


Looks at the idea of subculture today as compared to back in the 1980’s where you could tell the difference in who listened to what music to now being everyone looks the same. Making them question why is it… no creativity or social media or change of times. Enforcing a key point in my work of what has happened in m eye’s subculture is still about but not as prominent.

Feedback Research from Presenting


With mention by Anthony of using the gaze in our presentation I decided to look into seeing what gaze’s link to the imagery I was using in my script. Here I found this book that suggested…

Direct Eye Gaze – The impression of the subject and the viewer looking at each other. This could be represented in terms of the picture of someone or between the musician on stage and the fan.

Rear View Gaze – Seeing the view from behind the subject. Giving a sense of seeing the scene from the subject perspective. As a gig image has become a representation of an event from the point you as a member of the audience has seen it from.

Giving me the point of view in which the images I have viewed so far in my research.

While from the feedback that I received I first decided to look at the female side of rock music as with the music being mainly male dominated my work had become to be based solely on male musicians. So I looked at options for which to incorporate female musicians into my work.


1960’s were seen as a turning point

The fascination with the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix and the Grateful Dead that the time refers exclusively to their works ignoring all the other music that emerged at the time. PAGE 4

This was interesting to me in terms of fashion as these select artists that represent their times are the same ones that are iconic within fashion and identity. Showing music and fshion is what makes the icon.

  • While looking at the punk scene I also came across this book that explained how women have managed to grow within music. Through acceptance and more rights it has become more popular. Along with speaking of how through common trait to go with the music, certain fashions have come to be associated with the fans.

Informing my knowledge on how the music industry has changed and telling me that the fashion is to replicate or to be identical to the artist so that they are in the same realm as the artist. Allowing the fan to be closer in reach to the dream they want to live.