Structualist Film (Anti Narrative)

Focus – structural elements of film, colour, shape, repetition, screen space, soundscape.

Peter Gidal’s introductory essay to the Structural Film Anthology, Published by the BFi in 1976.

Structural/ Materialist film attempts to be non-illusionist. The process of the film’s making deals with devices that result in demystification or attempted demystification of the film process. But by ‘deals with’ I do not mean ‘represents’. In other words, such films do not document various film procedures, which would place them in the same category as films which transparently document a narrative, a set of actions, etc.

Related to visual language

Len Lye

One of few filmmakers working in inter-war Britain.

Established an international repetition

Sometimes seen as only genuine advent-garde photographer of the time.

Malcom Le Grice

8mm home movie footage.

Shot near Berlin.

Repeats cycles of action.

Temple manipulation

Colour distortion.

Hightens viewers awareness of the film- time and image.

Perception of colour in motion.


Stan Brakhage

Film should have a beginning, middle and end. Brakhage doesn’t believe in the order.

Goal = Liberation of the eye, creation of act of seeing unimagined and undefined by convention.

Doesn’t show conventional illusion.

Imposed by rules of perspective.

Compositional logic.

lenses grounded to achieve 19th-century compositional perspective”

Others that use this techniques…

Derek Jarman Screen Online

Rdical of British cinema in 1970’s, 80’s and 90’s.

Work sustained self due to it focusing on amateur outlook.

Private lifestyle.

Experimental Film and Music

Michael Gondry – White Stripes

Gill Scott Heron -The Revoulution Will Not Be Televised

Christian Marclay – The Clock

Have a trance like state to watch it.











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Really Virtual Reality

New media – think of books, cd’s, newspapers being suspended into digital versions.

Was classed as convergence but the word fell out of fashion.
Media integration is main nowadays. Everything is based online.

What is a virtual world?

Here people play a game on the wii, making this now a phase for exercising so to get people more healthy. Mainly getting gamers to exercise more instead of sitting playing play station games. However, from this they get exsorbed into the game and loose any idea of how close the surroundings are around them.

Here the guy wants to imagine the pain is gone.
Even when healthy thought we want to be tricked, transported. Often to places where there’s war.

Thirst of Illusion
Oliver Garu says these

“immersive” techniques have been utilised by artists throughout history to create the environment for worship and ritual”.
Examines how virtual fits into art history of illusion or realism.

Trompe l’oeil – illustrates the love of being tricked.

Early artists interested in creating illusion and fantasy.

Robbie Cooper

Here he focuses on the way a game player becomes immersed into their environment.
Photography used to be seen as honest. The camera never lied.

Does making a representation move it into virtual realism? Is virtual almost true?
Even if prosaic or everyday still virtual.
Artists before BC was also interested in virtual, digital or immersion but they were interested in illusion.

Adding a playful element!

Kurt Wenner

Julian Beever

Using chalk and murals to merge into the surrounds.
Grau – Digital/virtual have exactly the same purpose – create illusion/alternative reality.
Even photojournalism has a sense of virtual. Robert Capa’s falling soldier said to be set up.

In so much virtual how can we tell what is reality?


A blog post on BBC News looked at similarities between war and games.

Enforced by Ofcom ruling that ITV misled viewers by airing footage claimed to have been shot by the IRA which was actually from a game.
Nottingham Trent University – Game Transfer Phenomenon research showing that game playing transfers into reality as the lines blur between the two

Lev Manovich.

“Whose Vision is it? It is the vision of a computer, a cyborg, an automatic missile. It is the realistic representation of human vision in the future, when it will be augmented by computer graphics and cleansed from noise. It is the vision of a digital grid. Synthetic computer generated imagery is not an inferior representation of our reality but a realistic representation of a different reality”.

1990’s moving image fundamental transition.

Previously seperate – live action cinematography, graphics, still photography, animation, 3D computer animation, typography.

Became combined in different ways.
“Pure” moving image became an exception
Everything was combined.

Computer’s started to be used to create highly spectacular special effect – “invisible effects”
Late 90’s. The whole project displays a hyper real look where the live-action material is not completely invisible but does not call for attention in the same way special effects usually do.
-has multiple media within same frame.

Hybrid visual language is common to large proportion of short experimental or independent videos.
Many VJs and live cinema also combine hybrid, combing video, layers of 2D imagery, animation, abstract imagery generated in real time.

Other moving image culture that took place.
Computer produced special effects – affected narrative film makers.
Computer generated special effects in Hollywood feature films or the inexpressive digital video and editing outside of it.
Not as main.

Revolution – No new media created.
Radical 80’s made to be not noticed in cultural history.

Since 1990’s…
Hybrid visual culture dominated
Narrative still use mostly use live-action footage, videos shot by consumers and prosumers with commercial video cameras plus phone cameras left as are. Everything else hybrid.

80% follow hybridity.

Uses green screen and composes actors with computer generated sets or visuals.
Not as dramatic as motion graphics or seamless integration as CGI.
Explore space between  juxtaposition and complete integration.

Create a new stylized aesthetic that can’t be reduced to live action cinematography or 3D computer animation.
Display same logic as new hybrids.
Not a mechanical one but a new visual aesthetic that didn’t previously exist.

Sodium Fox

Blend of drawings, paintings, 2D animation, photography and software effects.
Slows down pace of motion graphics.
Computer software allows for control the transparency of each layer, different visual effects.
Biologically inspired algorithms and techniques to create animal like movements in animations and interactives.

Some look like over-sized pixels or heavy image compression.
1980’s remix dominated 2000’s
Remixing has a meaning to music – introduction of multi-track mixers in 1970’s.
Today known as any re-working of any existing works.
Remixes combine content form many sources in one piece of media.
Today fundamental techniques, working methods and ways of  representation and expression.

Works nowadays can use all techniques from the different types of media.

From Media to Algorithms
Once a computer environment is released and interacted with others making hybrids.

Deep Remixability
Crossover effect
Separate media techniques can function.
Altering of separate parts

The Variable Form
Motion graphics affects the frame as a whole. Everything in the frame changes – visual elements, transparency, the texture of the image etc.
Something that stays the same is an exception from the norm.
Digital computers allow to represent phenomenon or structure as a set of variables. All design and variables -visual, temporal, spiritual, interactive can change constantly. Also allowed to change the parameters.
Software such as Adobe affects influences the designers thinking.
Mid 1990’S allowed spline based modeling for 3D modeling.
Used in other subjects as well as creative i.e. architecture

The Aesthetics of Continuity

Require a visual coherence
Creates change before the eyes without realizing how quickly.
Another made from software – constants become variables.
Talent is key as well as technical knowledge.

From this I got the understanding that since the use of computers the meaning of the work has changed, before you had to have the ability to use equipment for a set subject such as photography as well as the skill to create the imagery. However, since computers have come into force and many forms have been combined that is now not enough as you now have to have knowledge and ability to use each form available. This also means that the aspect and ability captured in an image is now not as effective as it used to be as the resort of computers becomes stronger. Making you consider how much is ability and how much is technology, as technology now allows for the alteration of many aspects in an image. That many are now more computer-generated than pictures. However, in a time today the computer generated can make the images also more effective to view or make the impossible, possible to view. It is dependent on how it is used.

Task 4 – Hybrids

For my forth task I have been asked to do a presentation based on hybrid forms.

“In the seminar you will be giving mini-presentations on the glorious hybrids you have found. These might be images that have been recoloured, or montages/mash-ups – or they might deal with images distributed via an app you use. Or they might be an application of some kind – or a film. Think about”:

  1. The motivation behind the hybrid

  2. The narrative or message of the image/form/application

  3. Is it art/journalism/entertainment?

  4. Is it useful?

  5. Who made it?

Here I decided to look at Tommy Ingberg, Never Mind.

From this I created this presentation on Prezi.

Task 3 – Immersive Photography

For my third task each group was asked to look at  range of immersive photography. Between my group we found these options.


This artist focuses on 360 imagery through videos, photos and cgi. In the imagery you have a set colour like pink enforced in the image as well as added affects such as falling snow. This way the colour is enforced for what the artist is focused on and the snow although does not  look authentic, does give an impression to the viewer of what the conditions are when the picture is being taken. While with the videos you choose where you go as the person walking as you are given the controls to direct your way through it. This is finally explained in the cgi as they take a scene and build it through from a model design into a cgi version.

Google Street View 

This piece is focused on the use of google view, an interactive map that is available by any one but is now also used as an art form nowadays. It is mainly seen as a helpful tool by any one to visit any where in the world from the comfort of their seat, with no cost or movement needed. Due to this it is also a strong business for the google themselves.

Matt Field

In this piece you are greeted by a world map that marks out places in different countries. Each marker represent a place used for a project created within the project. After it loads it then allows you to move around the place at your own free will as if you are walking round in a circle viewing your surroundings.

Hillel Steinberg

This set of images shows immersion in a different way. Here a range of 75 images are used in sequence are stitched together after being aligned. Each one turned round but with extra thought put into each to make sure each piece is captured without leaving a gap or being out of line. To add affect a fish eye lens is used so to capture the surroundings area and makes it that all that is seen in that area by the eye is captured with each footpath being a different route to focus on.

Maya Press

With this immersive project, you are brought into the work straight away as when you see the image due to the angle used it is seen as being it’s your response. You first see shapes with a blue center before realising you are looking into the sky from the center point based around a range of buildings with you set inside.

Immersion in a Different Way

Chino Otsuka

Here Otsuka places herself within an already captured image through the use of digital techniques. That way a recent version of herself is shown by the child version once captured in the picture. Giving a sense of being an adult supervising a child although both are the same person.

Dan Wiltz

For this piece, the images are set as simple portraits where only a range of girls are photographed focusing on their phone. Here the only light available is from the phone so to show that all the girls are interested in is what happening on their phone.

Robbie Cooper

Here Cooper looked at people who have video game avatars so to show how they want to be. As in many cases people tend to create avatars that resemble themselves otherwise they go to the polar opposite and invent an avatar for them to be their desired person. Whether it’s what they prefer their dreamed of partner to be like or how they dream of seeing them selves as either taller, slimmer etc.


Bullshit and the Art of Crap Detection – Neil Postman

From reading the book I gathered the impression of the meaning of set words.
Here I read that people

  • crap – detecting came from Ernest Hemingway.
  • One quality needed above all others… “Yes a built in, shock proof, crap-detector”.
  • Big words are used when not sure what to say.
  • Pomposity – Way people try to show they are better than others.
  • Fanaticism – (bigotry) Only confirms own point of view.
  • Inanity – Entertainers mainly. An opinion given from the point of view of someone who is listened to but has no idea what they are talking about.
  • Superstition – Where the own beliefs are correct over something else as they believe in it.


Postman’s Law 

Third law –

“At any given time, the chief source of bullshit with which you have to contend is yourself.”

Forth law –

“Almost nothing is about what you think it is about–including you.”

Saying nothing is what you think it is including yourself as we never know ourselves never mind others.

Crap detection is what happens when someone becomes a certain type of person.


This I feel is interesting as when you become more inept with social networking or with your name the more a platform someone is given. Making it that they are then able to reach out to more people and get their points across but then some do use it to enforces their thoughts over people who support them. So with a module based on using social media and being based in a world that is based around social-media now it is easier to get followers and to preach than it is to consider both sides. Especially when it is easier nowadays trying to over come others as a sense of superiority. 

Creating My Website 2

From this being my first website that I had created and knowing that others who had used the same hosting site as me had been charged more than once for the one hosting name I was nervous to select for any options. So when I was asked to activate my account for it to process my transaction I decided to leave it to asking whether it was OK to go ahead or not from my lecturer. Luckily it was correct! Due to this I ended up being steps behind everyone else from the steps that had been gone through before so now for getting up to date.

After selecting to install wordpress from my cpanel. I had my account. Here I altered a few things.

  • Admin (The default username for account)
  • General –  Title and Tagline.

While in the CPanel.

  • To use a director you create a new folder.
  • WordPress is a separate folder called wp.

To organize the files.

  • public_html – The public can see. Contains web pages.
  • inside wp – All wordpress instillation items and cgi bin folder. (Don’t need to use cgi bin folder).

  WordPress instillation items are php files. These have different coding to dreamweaver which means the pages aren’t static.


So that my site had a response to the public and an advertising while being down I created a new html page in dreamweaver. Saying

“This site is under construction. Click here to visit the blog”.

While holding a link to the blog in the target. A html picture was uploaded and saved in the folder index under public_html. With the notes of no spaces or capital letters. 

However, even though I followed these steps it did not work. Instead I got this.

Screenshot 2014-01-19 21.19.52

This I found out to be due to the fact I called it underconstruction.html rather than index.html.

Naming it as Index gave me the proper page I wanted.

Screenshot 2014-01-19 21.30.31

A level Playing Field Lecture (Knowledge is Power)

Following on from the last lecture, this week there was a lecture based on how information is used.

In context any information has always been a part of politics, no matter how it is considered. Back in the time of the war it was from propaganda as Hitler used imagery as being friendly leader fighting for his country, encouraging the people to move forward to a aryan society where the country had the perfect race. While the British used the same technique to encourage people to fight in the war for them.

With this image the innocence of a young happy girl gives a safe feel to the country, she is partnered with flowers to encourage growth. She is also dressed smartly in the clothing Hitler enforces for his people and holding a charity can with a swat sticker on. In tern giving a view of a charity supported helping out her country of which the girl is representing Germany with the flowering beauty from the up and coming growth formed through the countries finances. While in reality the country is in recession and being destroyed by war, however by the strength of the imagery the people are lead to believe differently.

In comparison to nowadays everything is controlled including what is on tv or in the newspapers so to link in with politics. Enforce the thoughts of those in charge of the country with freedom of speech. Showing how the government are doing well when trying to be in power for another term. As an example a program called “Benefits Street” looking to show how some people on benefits take advantage when benefits are being cut by the government.

How People Respond 

From this people respond with rebellion through protests to say no, however while people walk in support of their beliefs they get their faces captured in sharp detail from a far distance without knowing so to document in case the protest turns rough. This is through Gateway Recognition alongside this people are believed to be identified through how they walk.

While conspiracy theorists claim that people with power are able to take information without our knowledge and cover up their actions, these were once dismissed. Even though when using the internet if viewing a shopping item on a website, the item will later be advertised until the cookies are removed yet many decide not to as it is inconvenient meaning until then their online activity is registered.

Until people like Edward Snowdon, Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning raised the alarm with acts such as wikileaks to raise the illegal actions leading to them being imprisoned for life or seeking refuge in a different country. Enforcing the control held by the government. On the other hand the activists such as the yes men confront by pretending to be a member of the group they are against and admitting guilt for the actions through large media formats duping the information that is becoming easier to do.

As shown with Kim Jong Un’s images of his uncle being removed from pictures so to remove his existence.

From this the media are starting to ploy an honesty tactic more by using amateur records as they are able to reach areas that sometimes the media can’t. As the media are banned by some places so the happenings don’t become leaked. From this feel of being captured there and then it is seen to be more honest by the viewer so is trusted more. However, this imagery isn’t as honest as believed due to viral videos, lkie with the Miley Cyrus twerking video, an honest recording of another girl following the fad and twerking in her house but is caught on fire during that becomes a media frenzy seen by many only to become a set-up and not true.

In comparison with Mashables, a media company where information is becoming more social media friendly as it makes up information that many especially conspiracy theorists, believe and publicize it resembling common media outlets so people are fooled into believing it is true.


From this I feel there is pro’s and con’s on either side. As we know everything we do including our latest location due to gps tracking in our phones etc. is being watched. It isn’t really hidden from the people. Whether it should be or not, is hard to decide as with gps if it isn’t tracked and someone goes missing their last location before going missing is known. If a crime is committed then it’s easier to identify the culprits but why cover it up? On the other hand innocent people’s identity is being captured also just for speaking out about what they believe in. Along with forces such as the government trying to mislead for the power or using their power to get the set impression they want. Due to people and organisation such as wikileaks, we at least have an idea about how deep this goes and the forces at bay or the ones running the country are out to stop it publicly. We know how much dishonesty is used and surely that knowledge is a good thing. Yet do we really need to have sites such as shopping for shoes or the monthly shop being watched by many networks or the government, in my opinion, no, that is just taking advantage of the tools available to them.

Task 2 – Illusion, Trickery and Propaganda

The second task consisted of.. Finding one (or more) Internet hoaxes or touched up photos (political or advertising). Discuss, in your groups:

  1. Who made it?

  2. What is its purpose?

  3. Does it succeed?

  4. How was it made?

Banned L’Oreal Advert

This image was created by L’Oreal so to advertise the affect a product could have on someone to enforce beauty. In which the image does enforce the ideal look that is wanted by people. However, the desired affect created in the image is said to be to artificial due to there being too much airbrushing being used through Photoshop after the image was captured. Leading the image to being banned.

Peter Kennard and Cat Phillips, “Photo Op”  (2005).


While with this image by Peter Kennard and Cat Phillips, the position is of it being a political view that many had about the role of Tony Blair in war. Where his role is claimed as being more of “I was there” rather than to help or stop what was said to be happening. Due to this the image, created through photo montage, does work as it encapsulates what many people was saying leading to it being described by The Guardian as “the definitive work of art about the Iraq war”.